Body Under Construction 2018 09 01

Each month I do my body check to track my body’s evolution with photo, measurements and body fat(%) to reach my Golden Ratio.

I take my results in the morning with my stomach empty or just a glass of water.

I calculate my body fat ( %) with the 1 site skin fold (fat caliper) and I use the caliper’s chart.

Current

  • Height : 175 cm (5 ft 8.8 in)

  • Weight : 87.9 kg (193.7 lbs)

  • body fat(%) : 14.8 %

  • Waist : 97 cm (38.18 in)

  • Chest : 101 cm (39.78 in)

  • Arms : 34.5 cm (13.58 in)

  • Forearms : 29.5 cm (11.61 in)

  • Shoulders : 120.5 cm (47.44 in)

  • Hips : 100.5 cm (39.56 in)

  • Thighs : 59 cm (23.22 in)

  • Calves : 42 cm (16.53 in)

  • Neck : 40 cm (15.74 in)

Goals (Golden Ratio)

  • Height : 175 cm (5 ft 8.8 in)

  • Weight : 80 kg (176.37)

  • body fat(%) : 8 %

  • Waist : 75.07 cm (29.55 in)

  • Chest : 107.25 cm (42.22 in)

  • Arms : 39.93 cm (15.72 in)

  • Forearms : 31.63 cm (12.45 in)

  • Shoulders : 121.47 cm (47.82 in)

  • Hips : 91.16 cm (35.88 in)

  • Thighs : 61 cm (24.01 in)

  • Calves : 39.61 cm (15.59 in)

  • Neck : 39.68 cm (15.62 in)

Websites where I found my Golden Ratio, it’s here .

Websites where I calculate my body fat(%), it’s here .

And you ? Have you set your goals ?

If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here.

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-Steph

Become Insensitive To Haters

hater

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE !!! I watched an Olivier Roland’s video  and I learned some good stuff.

To be successful, it’s really necessary to have the ability to ignore haters, especially on internet.

Beginners are unaware of the emotional impact that haters can create and it can also scare people who want to start their company online. When you develop your internet presence, avoid haters is impossible.

Hater

A hater is a person who feels the irresistible urge to send you a message by email, comment or tweet to tell you :

  • You’re the stupidest and ugliest person in the world

  • Your content is the most insignificant thing since the creation of the planet earth

  • That he/she hopes that you don’t make children to not spread the evil on the planet earth and that you die quickly

These 3 things are what say haters in general.

The truth is, you can’t avoid that. Select one of your favorite artists, athletes or actors, check out one of his/her video on Youtube and read the comments. You can see the quality’s level of comments and it makes people lose faith in humanity. And it’s not just haters, there are also people who tell a lot of bullshit and insult each other.

A hater is a person who is bored and has no purpose in life, so that person is trying to create trouble in your community and psychologically impact you in a negative way. Fortunately on social media, it’s possible to ban haters.

Don’t be afraid

don't be afraid

I know many people who want to create a blog, a podcast or a Youtube channel but they’re afraid of having a bad buzz. I know a medical student who wants to create something to help students who are in 1st year of medical school but he still doesn’t do anything. This is the same situation as people who never drive because they are afraid of an accident or people who never take a plane.

It’s important to understand :

  • It’s extremely unlikely

  • Even if you have a bad buzz, you’ll survive

  • In any case, you will build a community that will support you.

When you look at the biggest bad buzz in history, it’s rare to see that the sales falls caused the bankruptcy of the company (or maybe you know a case I don’t know). Sometimes there are people who have been a bit traumatized by a bad buzz but in the majority of cases, there is little damage.

The best revenge you can have for haters is to have a good life. To be afraid of the haters that make you afraid to act, that you’re paralyzing, it’s showing to the world that it’s you who are leaving intimidated by something that is very unlikely to happen.

Keyboard warrior

keyboard type

Haters are also called « Keyboard warrior » because generally haters allow themselves to make type of criticism about people on internet but they are unable to do in real life, face to face. They’re comfortable behind their keyboard because they suffer no consequence.

So don’t be intimidated by the keyboard warriors and what I recommend you to do, it’s to keep a bottle of champagne to celebrate your first hater. It’s important to know that having haters is a necessary step in your success. Having your first hater is a sign that you’re on the right track because you’re disturbing someone.

keyboard warrior

Constructive criticism

Among this ton of negative comments (95%), there are also critics who can help you improve. To identify these critics, you must ask yourself this question : « What is the intention of this criticism ? Do I feel that the person wants to help me ? ».

If you feel that the criticism of the person is to help you, you can analyze the criticism and see if you can do something that interest you. If not, you can ban the person. Unfortunately, you’ll see that the majority of critics are not made to help you.

Remember that about haters :

  1. They’re inevitable

  2. They’re a sign of your success. Everyone has haters, even the people you admire the most

  3. They’re keyboard warriors. They say things that he/she doesn’t allow himself/herself to say in real life, face to face.

  4. Keep a bottle of champagne for the day you’ll have yor first hater

  5. To identify constructive criticism, ask yourself this question : « Is there a positive intention in this criticism to improve myself ? ».

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-Steph

Concussion

concussion
A blow to the head that makes the brain hit the skull

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interessed in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that alters mental state or creates others symptoms. Many people think they have no concussion because they have not lost consciousness. You must know that it’s possible to have a concussion without losing consciousness. Often football or rugby players say : « I just got my bell rung » when they have been hit on the head that makes the ears rings, but these symptoms are often consistent with concussion.

Signs

  • Balance problems

  • Difficulty communicating, concentrating

  • Dizziness

  • Drowsiness

  • Fatigue

  • Feeling emotional

  • Feeling mentally foggy

  • Headache

  • Irritability

  • Memory difficulties

  • Nausea

  • Nervousness

  • Numbness or tingling

  • Sadness

  • Sensitivity to light or noise

  • Sleeping more than usual or difficulty falling asleep

  • Visual problems (blurry or double vision)

  • Vomiting

Diagnostic

diagnostic

As soon as a concussion is suspected, a trained coach, certified athletic trainer or the team physician should immediately perform an initial « sideline » evaluation, including :

  • Symptoms list review

  • Focused neurological exam

  • Focused orientation exam that tests short-term memory recall such as the event, play, opponent, score or last meal.

  • Focused orientation exam that tests long-term recall such as name, birth date, place of birth.

  • Assessment of athlete’s ability to stay attentive to a complex task such as reciting months backwards.

If a person is suspected of having a concussion and there is no diagnosis, a concussion may place an athlete at risk of developing second impact syndrome. It’s a potentially fatal injury that occurs when an athlete suffers a second head injury before the old head injury has completely healed.

Second impact syndrome

Second impact syndrome is a potentially fatal injury that occurs when an athlete suffers a second head injury before the old head injury has been fully healed. Unfortunately, it’s complicated to know if the brain has been healed from the first injury. Even after all symptoms resolved, it’s possible that the healing isn’t complete and that it increases the risk to the brain of having the second impact syndrome. Neurocognitive testing can help doctors or physician decide when the athlete can return to the competition in the best conditions.

Neurocognitive testing

Neurocognitive testing

Neurocognitive testing is a questionnaire (usually on the computer) that athletes do that deals with several areas of brain function, including memory, problem solving, reaction times, brain processing speed and post-concussion symptoms. It’s most valid if the athlete has a pre-injury baseline test on file to compare the post concussion test. This information can be really helpful for the doctor or physician to decide when the athlete can return to the competition.

When to return to the competition

All athletes suffer concussion (whatever the gravity) should pass an evaluation by a qualified health care provider before returning to the competition. Athletes should return to competition after they have been completely cleared of all concussion symptoms and have no symptoms during and after physical tests.

Baseline testing is important for assessing concussion symptoms after an incident. The baseline testing often includes neurocognitive tests, symptom checklists, sideline assessment tools such as the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool and balance testing.

Statistics

  • Athletes who have already had a concussion are more likely to have another concussion.

  • Children and teenagers are more likely to have concussion and take longer to heal than adults.

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-Steph

Create A Company In A Hyper Competitive Market

hyper competitive market

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE !!! I watched an Olivier Roland’s video  and I learned some good stuff.

People often tell me that they want to create a blog, a Youtube channel or a company but the market is very competitive and they wonder if it’s worth it. It’s true that in markets like personal development, fitness or photography, these are markets where you will not start in the same way as in a market where there is little competition.

Feeling

feeling

It’s not because the market is hypercompetitive that you have no chance. The main thing is to differentiate yourself from others and to allow people to connect with you. That’s what happened to me a few months ago. I was looking for podcasts on fitness and I found Shrugged Collective . But I didn’t like the guys voice so I changed to The Model Health Show  and I like this podcast. These 2 podcasts are listened to by thousands (or millions) people and what is important to understand is that these podcasts can’t please everyone, it’s impossible.

There are people who will like what you do and there are people who will hate what you do. This is why there is a place for everyone. In theory, you can offer exactly the same product/service as many other people in a market but there are people who will buy your products/services rather than others because people have more feelings with you.

Shrugged Collective and The Model Health Show are the same thing, they’re podcasts about fitness. What makes the difference isn’t the content (because now, a lot of people make good content) but the podcast’s voice. The question you ask yourself when you’re listening a podcast is : « Am I going to spend hours and hours listening to that voice and that kind of elocution ». It’s the same with companies, especially on internet when you do Personal Branding (reputation) when you allow your audience to connect with you.

Have Your Own Authentic Style

authenticity authentic

It’s like in everyday life, there are people who will like and others who will hate you because we’re human beings. When you buy a computer or a smartphone, who will you buy it from ? You’ll buy it from people you like the most and it’s normal.

Of course, having your own authentic style isn’t the only way to differentiate yourself. But attention, it’s not because people like you that you’ll automatically have a business that works. It’s necessary to have an idea that has economic potential. What I have noticed is that people neglect the importance of connecting with the audience, the community or the clients.

I know there are people following me because they have a good feeling with me and not with my competitors. And others have a good feeling with my competitors and not with me. It’s not a problem, it’s normal, it’s human and it’s part of life.

Don’t be afraid to enter a market with hypercompetitiveness, there is always a place for you. In this case, it’s necessary to realize that it will be difficult to make your place in a competitive environment. It’s difficult because you should be in a market where there are behemoths. But the advantage of a competitive market is that you know it’s a profitable market because there are already a lot of people living on it.

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-Steph

Articular Cartilage Injuries

articular cartilage injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interessted in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Definition

Articular cartilage is difficult to understand because there are 3 types of cartilages in the body : articular of hyaline cartilage (covers joint surfaces), fibrocartilage (knee meniscus, vertebral disk) and elastic cartilage (outer ear). These cartilage’s types differ in their structure, elasticity and strength.

Articular cartilage is a complex element, it’s a living tissue that is on the joint’s surface. The function is to provide a low friction surface to allow the joint to withstand weight loads through the range of motion needed to perform activity of daily living. To put it simply, articular cartilage is a very thin shock absorber. It’s built in 5 distinct layers and each layer has a structural and biochemical difference.

Injury

articular cartilage injury

Articular cartilage injury may be due to trauma or progressive degeneration (wear and tear). This can be mechanical destruction, a direct blow or other trauma. The healing of articular cartilage cells depends on the severity of the damage and the location of the lesion. Articular cartilage has no direct blood supply so it has very little ability to repair itself. It the lesion penetrates the bone under the cartilage, the bone provides blood in the area which improves the chances of healing.

Mechanical degeneration (wear and tear) of articular cartilage occurs with progressive loss of normal cartilage structure and function. This loss begins with the softening of the cartilage, then progresses to fragmentation. As the loss of articular cartilage lining continue, the underlying bone no longer has any protections against normal wear and tear of daily life and begins to get damaged leading to osteoarthritis.

In many cases, a patient experiences knee swelling and vague pain. At this stage, continuous physical activity isn’t possible. If a loose body is present, words such as « locking » or « catching » might be used to explain the problem. With wear and tear , the patient often experiences stiffness, decreased range of motion, joint pain and/or swelling.

Diagnostic

The physician examines the knee to look for a decrease in range of motion, pain along the joint line, swelling, fluid on the knee, abnormal alignment of the joint’s bones, and ligament or meniscal injury.

Cartilage lesions are difficult to diagnose and it’s possible that the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or arthroscopy may be necessary. Plain X- rays don’t usually diagnose articular cartilage problems but they used to rule out other abnormalities.

Treatment

articular cartilage injury treatment

 

Articular cartilage injury that doesn’t penetrate the bone doesn’t repair itself. A lesion that penetrates the bone can heal but the type of cartilage created is structurally unorganized and doesn’t work as well as the original cartilage.

Lesion less than 2 cm have the best prognosis and the best treatment options. These options are arthroscopic surgery using techniques to remove damaged cartilage and increase blood flow from the underlying bone (drilling, pick procedure or microfracture ).

For smaller lesion of articular cartilage surgery is not required.

For larger lesion, it’s necessary to transplant the articular cartilage from another area of the body. Talk to your doctor or specialist to have more information about the decision to have a surgical operation.

For patients with osteoarthritis, non-surgical treatment consists of physical therapy, lifestyle modification (for example reducing activity), bracing, supportive devices, oral and injection drugs (like non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, cartilage protective drugs) and medical management.

Surgical options depend on the severity of osteoarthritis and may provide a reduction in symptoms that are usually short-lived. Total osteoarthritis may relieve the symptom of advanced osteoarthritis but this usually requires a change in the lifestyle and/or level of activity of the patient.

Statistics

Based on published studies, the overall prevalence of articular cartilage injury in the knee is 36% among all athlete and 59% among asymptomatic basketball players and runners.

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-Steph

Start A Smart Company

startup company data

What’s up !!! This is THE stephane ANDRE. I watch an Olivier Roland’s video  and I learned some good stuff.

To create a company, most people advise to leave school or job to be 100% focused on creating the company. I advise you to start your business part-time and continue your school or job. An excellent method for this is « Lean Startup » . The principle of Lean Startup is to put on the market as fast as possible your product/service at minimum viable.

2 different methods

method scientific

Classic

Let’s take a closer look at what most people do. A person has an idea to start a company, so this person does a market research to minimize the risks. Then this person will seek financing with bank loans after calculating the needs of the business. These business needs based on a 3-years business plan that is extremely theoretical and hypothetical. You should know that in 99% of cases, as soon as the company is open and prospects are in contact with the products/services, these business plans have no connection with the reality of the field.

The problem with this method is that this person works for 1 year to create a product/service and when it’s available, this person realize that everyone doesn’t care. When the product/service isn’t selling, the stress rises enormously and you have to find a way to pay back people who lend money to your company.

Lean startup

With the Lean Startup’s method, when a person has a product/service idea, the principle is to find the minimum basic function of that which would interest the audience and the prospects who would be willing to buy. Then you have to do a test as soon as possible on the market. There is something very important that Michael Masterson said : « Before your business make its first sale, it’s nothing more than a set of unproven ideas that you are spending money on ».

That is why it’s necessary to set up a field test in the most real conditions possible with the most minimal version of your product/service.

Here is an example with someone who wants to buy a parking lot to rent it :

  • With the classic method, this person bought a random parking lot hoping to have many prospects interested in renting it.

  • With the Lean Startup method, this person will find an interesting parking lot to buy. Then this person will post an ad in an ads posting site and on social media and will wait to see if there are peope interested in renting it. If people call this person to say : « I’m interested in having your parking lot, I’d like to rent it », in this case this person will buy the parking lot. If nobody is interested in the parking lot, this person will not buy it.

Test quicky

test field

There are several other methods like this to test. In my case, it’s my blog to build my brand and until today, I’m doing it part-time. Here is a 3-part article in the power of a blog ( here  ).

Create my blog allowed me to :

  1. To know if I could find and keep my rhythm to write articles

  2. To know if I could share interesting things to create an audience

  3. To know if I could possibly monitize this blog with this audience

Once you have the idea, you need to test it as soon as possible to see what is happening on the field to collect feedback from the first customers and to know if you have an interesting business model or not. This test is excellent for eliminating a lot of uncertainty.

The cool thing about the Lean Startup method is that you’ll really start investing a lot of time, money and energy when you have your first customers who will help you improve your product/service.

Let things be clear, Lean Startup isn’t a magic formula, it’s necessary to act and start the process again, until you have a product/service that interest people.

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-Steph

Acromioclavicular Joint Injury

acromioclavicular joint injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Acromioclavicular joint is a joint between the clavicle and the scapula. Acromion is a continuation of the scapular spine and hooks over anteriorly. It articulate with the clavicle (collar bone ) to form the acromioclavicular joint.

Problems types

The most common problems are arthritis, fracture and separation. Arthritis is characterized by a loss of joint’s cartilage. Arthritis of acromioclavicular joint is common with weight lifter, especially with bench press and a little less with shoulder press. When there is a problem with the rotator cuff, it’s possible that there is also acromioclavicular joint’s arthritis.

Acromioclavicular separation

acromioclavicular joint injury type grade

When there is an acromioclavicular joint separation, it means that the ligament that connects the acromion and clavicle is damaged and that the 2 structures don’t align properly. Separation’s state can be weak or severe, that is why there is a system of « grade » according to which ligament is torn and the severity of the tear.

Grade I Injury – This is the weakest damage and the acromioclavicular joint is still aligned.

Grade II Injury – This is an average damage. Ligaments are only stretched but not fully torn. In case of stress (physical effort), the acromioclavicular joint becomes painful and unstable.

Grade III Inury – This is a serious damage. Ligaments are completely torn and the collar bone is no longer attached to the scapula, which creates a visible deformity.

Treatment of acromioclavicular joint arthritis

If the rest, ice, medications and change of the training program (changing the exercises) don’t work, the next step is a shot of cortisone. A shot of cortisone in the joint may have calmed the pain and may be permanently swollen. As each individual is unique, the effects may vary and it’s possible that it doesn’t swell permanently.

If non-surgical methods fail, it’s possible to perform a surgical operation. The pain is localized at the bones end that make contact with each other and the goal of the operation is to remove some of the end of the clavicle. This ambulatory surgery can be done with a small incision of 1 inch (2.5 cm) long or with the arthroscopy technique with 2-3 incisions. The results and recovery of these 2 surgical techniques are about the same. Most patients have a full movement by 6 weeks and can return to do sport by 12 weeks.

Treatment for acromioclavicular separation

Separation can create very painful injuries, so the first thing to do is to decrease the pain. Hold the arm in a sling, put ice and pack the shoulder for 20-30 minutes every 2 hours as needed. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications can also help calm the pain.

When the pain begins to subside, it’s important to move the fingers, wrists and elbow (and eventually the shoulders) in order to avoid having stiff or « frozen » shoulder. The length of time needed to regain complete movement and function depends on the severity or injury’s grade.

Recovery from Grade I acromioclavicular separation usually takes 10-14 days while Grade III takes 6-8 weeks.

When surgery

Grade I and II separations require very rarely surgery. With a Grade III injury, after surgery, it’s possible to have full body physical activity with some restrictions.

Statistics

  • More males than females suffer acromioclavicular joint injuries

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-Steph

Break For Injuries

sport injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE and today I didn’t train. I will tell you why, because I feel pain to my left shoulder and my 2 knees. 6 day ago, it was my leg day and you know, I hurt my right knee during a martial art session. So I used lightweight to train my leg.

Since around 6 months, I felt pain to my shoulder (shoulder impingement) because of the dumbbell overhead shoulder press and dumbbell bench press. Since 1 months, I hurt my right knee in a martial art sparring, because I wanted to avoid a punch and my leg (my knee) was in a bad position. I had 2 injuries . I searched an alternative exercise for the dumbbell overhead shoulder press and dumbbell bench press to decrease the pain and I found out. I wrote 2 articles about it. Click here and there .

Too much injuries

sport injury

As it was a leg day, I decided to do front squat with lightweight to not hurt to much my right knee. After my front squat session, I did leg press with one leg. After my warm-up set, I felt a pain in my left knee, it was like if someone hit my left knee with a knife, I stopped my rep immediately. It was the first time I felt this pain and I didn’t like it. I tried to do an another rep to see the gravity of the pain and I stopped my leg day here.

I did the half of my leg day’s program and I thought it was a good idea to test the new way to do dumbbell bench press without pain. When I was walking with the dumbbell in my hands, I felt the pain in my left knee. I did this dumbbell bench press variant and I validate it.

Usually after my workout, I eat my meal (my post workout is solid food). While I was eating my meal, I thought it was the time to make a break. 3 injuries is too much for me and I decided quickly to make a break of 1 month to really recover, because since 2015 I train regularly 6-7 days per weeks and the longest break I make was 10 days. Yeah, 10 days. When I realized it, I thank God of Light for his gratitude. And you know what ? When I slept, I felt I a little pain in the middle of my back. It means to do my front squat, my body compensated the weakness of my right knee with others parts of my body to be able to execute the movement.

Special recovery

Now, it’s the 6th days and I continue to write article for my blog and I learned what kind of injuries I have and I want to learn deeper about sport injuries because I scare to become like Ronnie Coleman. Ronnie Coleman is the best bodybuilder for me, it’s because of him I started seriously to train like a bodybuilder when I was on the streets. And now, see this living legend who can’t walk without a crutch, it’s too sad.

I want to have the best athletic body I can until I die, I’m more focus about sport injuries. More I know about it and more I can avoid it. Every day I do my stretching session and I do 2 special movements to help my left shoulder to decrease the pain. I will see on 15th July, if my recovery session is effective.

It’s important not to take lightly the pain of your body. I know a lot of people who had pains a few years ago and they had to do some surgery. Now, they can’t use their capacity at 100%.

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-Steph

Ankle Sprain

ankle sprain inversion lateral

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A sprain is a stretch injury of the ligament that supports the ankle. This sprain often happens to the ligament outside the ankle when the foot is twisted inward (inverted). It’s a « lateral » ankle sprain that localized to the ligaments in the outer/lower part of the ankle.

A « high » ankle sprain (or syndesmosis injury) is a ligament stretch injury that holds the tibia and fibula together in the lower leg. This type of sprain happens when the ankle is twisted outward, it’s an eversion injury.

ankle sprain inversion eversion syndesmatic lateral medial high

When there is a sprain, the ankle is tender and swollen on the outside, above and at the front of the ankle bone, but the pain doesn’t come from the ankle bone. A sprain can create moderate or severe pain that can prevent the foot from supporting the body weight.

ankle sprain stretch injury grade

Treatment of sprained ankle

ankle sprain rice rest ice compression elevation

The basic treatment is what we call RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation). During a severe sprain, it’s advisable to use a walking boot to help support the ankle.

Recovery time for a « lateral » sprain is usually 1-3 weeks and for a « high » sprain is usually 3-6 weeks.

Rheabilitation can begin a few days after the sprain when swelling decreases. The rheabilitation has 3 goals :

  1. Restore movement et flexibility

  2. Restore strength

  3. Restore balance

How to avoid a ankle sprain

It’s possible to use a brace to help prevent sprains. There are several types of neoprene or elastic materials. Here are some models on Amazon, click here .

Statistics

  • Ankle sprains are more commun in all sport that involve cutting and pivoting

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-Steph

Chi-Square Test With More Than 2 Categories

tableau chi square test

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

In this article, we will do a Chi-square test with more than 2 categories. We will use the A/B test « Country » which has 3 categories which corresponds to 3 countries : German, Spain and France. Select « Gender Actual » tab, make a copy with a right-click and select « Duplicate ».

tableau chi square test

Name the tab « Gender Actual (2) » by « Country Actual ».

tableau chi square test

In « Dimensions », move the variable « Geography » over « Gender » in « Columns » to replace « Gender » with « Geography ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

Here’s how to do an A/B statistical test when there are 3 categories. We’ll start with the classic method and then I’ll show you another way to do Chi-square test with any number of categories.

Let’s start with the classical method. In this case, there are 3 categories so we can’t use the online tool of the previous article. In the previous article we used an online tool with only 2 categories « Sample1 » and « Sample2 ». That’s why we’re going to use another online tool, click here  .

tableau chi square test

In this online tool, we can enter the values without using the total values. That is, we enter only the number of observations in each category. We simply need to enter the values that are on our A/B test. And I’m going to show you how to turn our A/B test into a table. In this way, it will be easier to enter the values in the online tool without making any mistakes.

Go to the « Show me » tool at the top right.

tableau chi square test

Click on « text tables »

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

Click on « Swap Rows ans Columns » button.

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

Cool, now you have a table arranged in exactly the same way as the online tool.

In the online tool, we will select 2 rows and 3 columns.

tableau chi square test

As we have 3 categories and 2 possible results, we enter our values exactly as in the table we just created on Tableau.

tableau chi square test

Perfect, our table is ready. You can click on the « Calculate » button.

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

As you can see, we observe the same thing as the other online tool. There is our indicator « p » value which is less than 5%. Which means there is a meaning.

tableau chi square test

This statistical significance means that these results are valid for the total number of the bank’s clients and not just for the sample of 10 000 clients. We observe similar differences with A/B test « Country » whose results are based solely on the sample of 10 000 clients. We can conclude that in the total number of the bank’s clients, it’s the clients in Germany who are more likely to leave the bank. This is how we do things cleanly.

You saw, this online tool limited by 5 by 5 tables so you can’t use this tool when you have 6 categories or more. But fortunately it’s possible to do Chi-square test with any number of categories. It’s a special method and for you to understand that, I’ll give you a theoretical explanation.

Here we have 3 countries : German, Spain and France.

tableau chi square test

What we’re trying to compare is the clients number leaving the bank in each of these countries.

tableau chi square test

With our basic A/B test based on a sample of 10 000 clients, we obtained 16% for France, 32% for Germany and 17% for Spain. Now the question is : « Do we observe the same results on the total clients number of the bank ? », it means : « In general, does the country have a significant effect on the clients number leaving bank ? ». Germany has the largest number of clients leaving the bank so the idea is : « Why would we need to compare the 3 countries at the same time ? ».

tableau chi square test

If we do an A/B test statistical test with Germany and France and we get a significant difference in the clients number leaving the bank between these 2 countries, then that would mean that in general, the country has a significant effect on the clients number who bank. Indeed, if we find by comparing Germany and France that the Germans are more likely to leave the bank than the French, we can consider that Spain will not change anything. Germans will always be more likely to leave the bank than the French. Maybe there will be a different relationship between Germany and Spain but there will always be a statistically significant difference between France and Germany with a larger number of clients leaving the bank in Germany than France.

Here is a way to confirm that this logic is true. There is a test and the participants of this test are German, Spanish and French. Imagine that this test was done without looking at what is happening in Spain. Now you get the result and you ask yourself the question : « Would the results changed if you added Spain ? ». The answer is « no » because there is no interdependence between Germany, Spain and France. That is, the decision to leave the bank in France and Germany doesn’t depend on Spain. And therefore, it’s quite correct to separate the categories by putting 1 aside to compare the 2 others. And as now we have 2 categories, we can do a Chi-square test with the online tool that we used in the previous article.

So let’s go back to our worksheet and put a country aside to compare only 2 countries. Select « Country » tab.

tableau chi square test

What we observe is that the difference between Spain and France is very small, so it wouldn’t be interesting to do a Chi-square test between Spain and France. It’s more interesting to do a Chi-square test between Germany and France and to prove that there is a statistically significant difference between these 2 countries. This will be enough to conclude that the country has a statistically significant impact on the clients number who leave the bank.

Selects « Country Actual » tab.

tableau chi square test

We will use the online tool of the previous article, click here  .

We will make a copy of « Country Actual » to have a bar chart with absolute values. Select « Country Actual », right-click and select « Duplicate ».

tableau chi square test

In « Show Me », select « horizontal bars ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

Removes « SUM (Number of Records )» from « Columns » and removes « Exited » and « Geography » from « Rows ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

In « Dimensions », move « Geography » in « Columns ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

In « Measures », move « Number of Records » to « Rows ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

In « Measures », move « SUM(Number of Records) » in « Label ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

In « Dimensions », move « Exited » in « Label ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

In « Dimensions », move « Exited » in « Colors ».

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

We also need total absolute values, which means the total number of men and women. There is a very fast way to get that. Right-click on the vertical axis and select « Add Reference Line ».

tableau chi square test

Then in « Value », click on the drop-down on the right and select « Sum » to have the total sum of the observations.

tableau chi square test

And in « Scope », you select « Per Cell » option to specify that you want the total sums for each category, male and female.

tableau chi square test

Now, we have the total sum at the top of the bars. We will modify labels to have the absolute values. In « Label », we will change « Computation » to « Value » and click on the « OK » button.

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

tableau chi square test

Here’s how to enter the data :

For « Sample1 » in #success, you enter 810 because there are 810 people who left the bank. For « Sample1 » in #trials, you enter 5014 because there are 5014 people in total.

For « Sample2 » in #success, you enter 814 because there are 814 people who left the bank. For « Sample2 » in #trials, you enter 2509 because there are 2509 people in total.

tableau chi square test

Here is the verdict : « Sample2 is more successful ». « Sample2 » corresponds to German’s clients and #success is :« yes, the client left the bank ». This verdict means that of all the clients from German are more likely to leave the bank than clients from France. And look, there is something important, it’s « p<0.001 ». This means that the « p » is strictly less than 0.001. As you can see, « p » value is very small, which concludes that the tests are statistically significant.

Ooh, there’s another thing I wanted to show you with the tab « age » with the 2 bar charts in parallel.

tableau chi square test

As you can see, there are many categories (more than 5) because each category corresponds to a 5-year ago group with clients of the bank aged from 15 to 90 years old. This is a lot of comparison but it would be a good exercise for you to find what are the 2 categories to compare that shows that there is a significant statistic difference.

I give you a hint, compare slices from 50 to 54 years old or from 35 to 39 years olds. In fact, you should compare all peer categories where you observe difference on this basic A/B test. Do a basic A/B test with absolutes values. Then do a Chi-square test to check if the difference is statistically significant, I mean, if the result is valid for the total number of bank’s clients.

This is a way to statistically validate the insights we see onTableau. You see, it’s not very difficult and it’s effective. Here is a way to find insights on Tableau and validate them.

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-Steph